Fridolin championed the theory that acute effects of tricylic antidepressant drugs were not directly responsible for thier therapeutic action. His research on the mechanism for the delayed effect of antidepressants was influenced by his friend and Nobel Prize winner, Earl Sutherland, who suggested that he should look beyond the synapse at the norepinephrine/adenylate cyclase signal transduction cascade. This strategy led to the discovery that antidepressant treatments (tricyclics, MAO inhibitors, and ECT), given on a clinically relevant time basis, reduced the responsiveness of the B-adrenoceptor-coupled adenylate cyclase system to norepinephrine in limbic and cortical structures of the rat brain.
Perhaps Spitzer's most famous achievement was the removal of the diagnosis of homosexuality as a mental disorder. In the early 70's after meeting with gay-rights advocates, he examined the evidence for homosexuality as a pathologic condition. The issue was extremely contentious, but, in 1973, ultimately he concluded that there was no evidence to support same-sexual orientation as a pathologic condition.
Most would place the burgeoning of Paul's career with his 1971 monograph demonstrating the reality of minimal brain dysfunction (MDD) in disturbed children. Further, against the conventional wisdom, genetic causality linked to a dopaminergic deficit was advocated. The MBD label fit the available data better than the still dubious causual implications of attentional disorder. His controlled studies uniquely concluded that MBD did not stop at puberty, but often continued into adulthood.
Eberhard H. Uhlenhuth, M.D., was a leading investigator in the psychopharmacology of anxiety disorders and is well known globally as an expert in the psychopharmacology of benzodiazepines. His research was elegant in its aims and design, and his nearly 200 published papers were clear, incisive, and highly influential. His approach to understanding the scope of these agents was thoughtful and well reasoned, and this characterized his approach to science and his clinical work.
Dr. Sjoerdsma’s pioneering work with biogenic amines, initially in collaboration with the laboratories of Dr. Sidney Udenfriend, led to the elucidation of serotonin’s metabolic degradation to 5-HIAA, discovery of the malignant carcinoid syndrome, elaboration of the clinical and biochemical manifestations of pheochromocytoma, and identification of the mechanism of action of monoamine oxidase inhibitors in humans.
It is unusual for an obituary to be written by more than one author, much less three. The fact that the three of us wished to honor and celebrate Ellen Stover in the ACNP journal is a testimony to the impact she has had on the field. Ellen personified the consummate NIH program officer. She tirelessly served her constituency—those whose grants were in “her” portfolio and advocated for them with NIMH leadership.
Prof. Merton Sandler, Fellow Emeritus of the ACNP, was one of the great founders of the field of Biochemical Psychopharmacology. As he noticed in an interview with Prof. D. Healy “I didn't even realize I was a psychopharmacologist until many years after I had become one”.
Dr. William L. Woolverton, Billy S. Guyton Distinguished Professor and Vice Chair for Research in the Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at the University of Mississippi Medical Center died after a brief illness at the age of 62 on June 13, 2013. Prof. Woolverton, a member of ACNP, was a leading scientist and educator in the behavioral pharmacology of drugs of abuse.
Dr. Joseph Clayton Schoolar, of Houston, passed away on May 4, 2013, at the age of 85. He is survived by his wife of 52 years Betty Schoolar, by his brother Larry Schoolar, and many beloved family members including his five children Jonathan, Cynthia, Geoffrey, Catherine, and Adrian. Dr. Schoolar was Professor Emeritus of Pharmacology and Psychiatry at Baylor College of Medicine.
Toni Shippenberg’s contributions to the fields of Neuroscience and Neuropharmacology over the years were outstanding and are reflected by the high esteem she was held in by colleagues within NIH as well as throughout the United States and abroad.
Arthur Yuwiler once wrote that “in contrast to claims that art and science are two separate antithetical ways of approaching the world … they are, at base, the same”. He was the best example of such a synthesis, a true Renaissance-type humanist, brilliant scientist, creative artist and world traveler.
Wylie W. Vale Jr., an eminent endocrinologist who helped identify the hormones through which the brain governs basic bodily functions and who was involved in a combative race for the Nobel Prize.
As Director of the National Institute for Drug Abuse at the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Schuster appreciated the complexities of the problems and how effective administration could help make the problems easier to grasp and deal with; the staff of the Institute could sense his enjoyment. He avoided many pitfalls, and never came to think that he would solve the public’s problem. Throughout the rest of his career, he often remarked on the perspective and excitement that the Directorship afforded him.
Dr. Schanberg is globally recognized for his ground-breaking research on the importance of touch in normal growth and development, finding that specific types of touch led to better health and shorter hospital stays for premature infants. His discoveries changed the way hospitals and clinics all over the world care for premature infants.
Joseph J. Schildkraut, M.D., is known for his work from the early- to mid-1960s that set the stage for psychopharmacological research in affective disorders for the years since.
Mogens Schou, M.D., had a long and distinguished career dedicated to research on therapeutic uses of lithium rooted in his deep concern for all patients with mood disorders.
David Segal, Ph.D., was nationally and internationally known as an expert and a creative scientific leader in the study of the long-term effects of drugs on behavior and the neurochemical mechanisms of adaptation.
Lewis S. Seiden, Ph.D., is known as a pioneer in the fields of behavioral pharmacology and amphetamine neurotoxicology. He was a Professor Emeritus of pharmacological and physiological sciences and of psychiatry at the University of Chicago at the time of his death.
Robert Bruce Sloane, M.D., published widely including papers with Stanley Cobb, Ted Sourkes (which was one of the earliest papers on catecholamines and mental illness), and Murray Saffrin on steroids all in the late 50s.
Jon M. Stolk, Ph.D, M.D., focused his research on the characteristics of the synthetic enzymes in the norepinephrine and epinephrine pathways.
A. Arthur Sugerman, M.D., published widely on the use of antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia as well as on EEG studies and addiction.
John Tallman, Ph.D., was a pioneer of the properties of the GABA neurotransmitter receptor using pharmacological and molecular biological probes. In 2001, he became the president and CEO of Helicon Therapeutics, Inc., a biotech company with a focus on functional genomics of memory and therapeutics to enhance memory consolidation.
In addition to his research contributions to molecular neurobiology, Dr. Raj Ticku was a critical leader at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio. He was an excellent teacher and played a key role in the recruitment of new talent to the Center and led many faculty and chair searches.
During his academic career, Dr. Tollefson's work focused primarily on antidepressants and anxiolytic drugs. He contributed important research on interaction of antidepressants and other psychotropic drugs with muscarinic-cholinergic receptors, predicting their propensity to produce anticholinergic side effects.
William J. Turner, M.D., was a first-generation psychiatric researcher, being almost alone in focusing on the biological cause of mental illness.
Francis J. White, Ph.D., a leader in the neurobiology of addiction, his research endeavors were supported continuously by NIDA, including a prestigious MERIT award.
Norm Weiner, M.D., best known for his pioneering work on catecholamine synthesis, storage, and release, was equally committed to scientific research and to education, making enormous contributions to the development of leaders and to science policy.
Dr. Young was an internationally renowned biological psychiatrist who conducted seminal work on stress biology and its role in severe depression and other mood disorders. She was elected to the ACNP in 1996.