Alzheimer's Disease :

Treatment of Noncognitive Behavioral Abnormalities

Murray A. Raskind
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Seattle VA Medical Center
University of Washington School of Medicine
Seattle, Washington 98195.


1. Abse DW, Dahlstrom WG. The value of chemotherapy in senile mental disturbances. JAMA 1960;174:2036-2042.

2. Aisen PS, DeLuca T, Lawton BA. Falls among geropsychiatry inpatients are associated with PRN medications for agitation. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1992;7:709-712.

3. Alzheimer A. About a peculiar disease of the cerebral cortex (1907 article translated by L Jarvik and H Greenson). Alzheimer's Dis Assoc Disord 1987;1:7-8.

4. Aoba A, Kakita Y, Yamaguchi N, et al. Absence of age effect on plasma haloperidol neuroleptic levels in psychiatric patients. J Gerontol 1985;40:303-308.

5. Avorn J, Dreyer P, Connelly MA, Soumerai SB. Use of psychoactive medication and the quality of care in rest homes. N Engl J Med 1989;320:227-232.

6. Barlow D, Kersen M. Single case experimental designs. New York: Pergamon Press, 1984.

7. Barnes R, Veith R, Okimoto J, et al. Efficacy of antipsychotic medications in behaviorally disturbed dementia patients. Am J Psychiatry 1982;139:1170-1174.

8. Beers M, Avorn J, Soumerai SB, Everitt DE, Sherman DS, Salem S. Psychoactive medication use in intermediate-care facility residents. JAMA 1988;260:3016-3020.

9. Blenow KAH, Wallin A, Gottfries CG, Lekman A, Karlsson I, Skoog I, Svennerholm L. Significance of decreased lumbar CSF levels of HVA and 5-HIAA in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging 1991;13:107-113.

10. Buck JA. Psychotropic drug practice in nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Sci 1988;36:409-418.

11. Burke WJ, Rubin EH, Morris JC, Berg L. Symptoms of "depression" in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Alzheimer's Dis Assoc Disord 1988;2:356-362.

12. Chambers CA, Bain J, Rosbottom R, et al. Carbamazepine in senile dementia and overactivity--a placebo controlled double blind trial. IRCS Med Sci 1982;10:505-506.

13. Coccaro EF, Zembishlany Z, Thorne A, et al. Pharmacologic treatment of noncognitive behavioral disturbances in elderly demented patients. Am J Psychiatry 1990;147:1640-1645.

14. Cohen RM, Weingartner HW, Smallberg A, Pickar D, Murphy DL. Effort and cognition in depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:593-597.

15. Cohen-Mansfield J, Billig N. Agitated behavior in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1986;34:711-727.

16. Consensus Development Panel. Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression in late life: the NIH Consensus Development Conference Statement. Psychopharmacol Bull 1993;29:87-100.

17. Cummings JL, Miller B, Hill MA, et al. Neuropsychiatric aspects of multi-infarct dementia and dementia of the Alzheimer type. Arch Neurol 1987;44:389-393.

18. Demuth GW, Rand GH. Atypical major depression in a patient with severe primary degenerative dementia. Am J Psychiatry 1980;137: 1609-1610.

19. Deutsch LH, Bylsma FW, Rovner BW, Steele C, Folstein MF. Psychosis and physical aggression in probable Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry 1991;148:1159-1163.

20. Devanand DP, Sackeim HA, Brown RP, Mayeux R. A pilot study of haloperidol treatment of psychosis and behavioral disturbance in Alzheimer's disease. Arch Neurol 1989;46:854-857.

21. Devanand DP, Cooper T, Sackeim HA, Taurke E, Mayeux R. Low dose oral haloperidol and blood levels in Alzheimer's disease: a preliminary study. Psychopharmacol Bull 1992;28:169-173.

22. Drevets WC, Rubin EH. Psychotic symptoms and the longitudinal course of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Biol Psychiatry 1989;25:39-48.

23. Dysken MW, Johnson SB, Holden L, et al. Haloperidol concentrations in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 1994;2:124-133.

24. Gleason RP, Schneider LS. Carbamazepine treatment of agitation in Alzheimer's outpatients refractory to neuroleptics. J Clin Psychiatry 1990;51:115-118.

25. Greenwald BS, Kramer-Ginsberg E, Marin DB, et al. Dementia with coexistent major depression. Am J Psychiatry 1989;146:11:1472-1478.

26. Hamilton LD, Bennett JL. Acetophenazine for hyperactive geriatric patients. Geriatrics 1962;17:596-601.

27. Hamilton LD, Bennett JL. The use of trifluoperazine in geriatric patients with chronic brain syndrome. Am Geriatr Soc 1962;10: 140-147.

28. Hardy J, Adolfsson R, Alafuzoff I, et al. Review: transmitter deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Neurochem Int 1985;7:545-563.

29. Harrington C, Tompkins C, Curtis M, Grant L. Psychotropic drug use in long-term care facilities: a review of the literature. Gerontologist 1992;32:822-833.

30. Health Care Financing Administration. Medicare and Medicaid: requirements for long-term care facilities. Final rule with request for comments. Fed Regist 1989:5316-5336.

31. Hermann N, Eryavec G. Buspirone in the management of agitation and aggression associated with dementia. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 1993;1:249-253.

32. Herz LR, Volicer L, Ross V, Rheaume Y. Pharmacotherapy of agitation in dementia. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149:1757-1758.

33. Holton A, George K. The use of lithium in severely demented patients with behavioral disturbance. Br J Psychiatry 1985;146:99-100.

34. Jenike MA. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors as treatment for depressed patients with primary degenerative dementia (Alzheimer's disease). Am J Psychiatry 1985;162:6:763-764.

35. Jeste DV, Wragg RE, Salmon DP, Harris MJ, Thal LJ. Cognitive deficits of patients with Alzheimer's disease with and without dementia. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149:184-189.

36. Kelly JF, Berardki A, Raffaele K, Szcepanick J, Haxby JV, Soncrant TT. Intravenous haloperidol causes greater memory impairment in old compared to young healthy subjects. Presented at American Geriatrics Society Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, November 1993.

37. Kumar A, Koss E, Metzler D, Moore A, Friedland RP. Behavioral symptomatology in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Alzheimer's Dis Assoc Disord 1988;2:363-365.

38. Lopez OL, Becker JT, Brenner RP, Rosen J, Bajulaiye OI, Reynolds CF, III. Alzheimer's disease with delusions and hallucinations: neuropsychological and electroencephalographic correlates. Neurology 1991;41:906-912.

39. Mackenzie TB, Robiner WN, Knopman DS. Differences between patient and family assessments of depression in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry 1989;46:9:1174-1178.

40. Marin DB, Greenwald BS. Carbamazepine for aggressive agitation in demented patients. Am J Psychiatry 1989;46:805.

41. Mellow AM, Solano-Lopez C, Davis S. Sodium valproate in the treatment of behavioral disturbance in dementia. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1993;6:28-32.

42. Movin G, Gustafson L, Franzen G, et al. Pharmacokinetics of remoxipride in elderly psychotic patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1990;82(Suppl 358):176-180.

43. Olafsson K, Jorgensen S, Jensen HV, Bille A, Arup P, Anderson J. Fluvoxamine in the treatment of demented elderly patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1992;85:453-456.

44. Pearson JL, Teri L, Reifler BV, Raskind MA. Functional status and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's patients with and without depression. J Am Geriatr Soc 1989;37:1117-1121.

45. Petrie WM, Ban TA, Berney S, et al. Loxapine in psychogeriatrics: a placebo- and standard-controlled clinical investigation. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1982;2:122-126.

46. Pinner E, Rich CL. Effects of trazodone on aggressive behavior in seven patients with organic mental disorders. Am J Psychiatry 1988;145:1295-1296.

47. Rada RT, Kellner R. Thiothixene in the treatment of geriatric patients with chronic organic brain syndrome. J Am Geriatr Soc 1976;24:105-107.

48. Reifler BV, Larson E, Hanley R. Coexistence of cognitive impairment and depression in geriatric outpatients. Am J Psychiatry 1982;139:623-626.

49. Reifler BV, Larson E, Teri L, Poulsen M. Alzheimer's disease and depression. J Am Geriatr Soc 1986;14:855-859.

50. Reifler BV, Teri L, Raskind M, Veith R, et al. Double-blind trial of imipramine in Alzheimer's disease patients with and without depression. Am J Psychiatry 1989;146:45-49.

51. Reisberg B, Borenstein J, Salob SP, et al. Behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: phenomenology and treatment. J Clin Psychiatry 1987;48(5, Suppl):9-15.

52. Reynolds CF, III, Perel JM, Kupfer DJ, Zimmer B, Stack JA, Hoch CC. Open-trial response to antidepressant treatment in elderly patients with mixed depression and cognitive impairment. Psychiatry Res 1987;21:111-122.

53. Risse SC, Cubberly L, Lampe TH, et al. Acute effects of neuroleptic withdrawal in elderly dementia patients. J Geriatr Drug Ther 1987;2:65-67.

54. Roth M. The natural history of mental disorders in old age. J Ment Sci 1955;101:281-301.

55. Rovner BW, Kafonek S, Filipp L, Lucas MJ, Folstein MF. Prevalence of mental illness in a community nursing home. Am J Psychiatry 1986;143:1446-1449.

56. Ryden MB. Aggressive behavior in persons with dementia who live in the community. Alzheimer's Dis Assoc Disord 1988;2:342-355.

57. Sakauye KM, Camp CJ, Ford PA. Effects of buspirone on agitation associated with dementia. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 1993;1:82-84.

58. Salzman C, Fisher J, Nobel K, et al. Cognitive improvement following benzodiazepine discontinuation in elderly nursing home residents. Intl J Geriatr Psychiatry 1992;7:89-93.

59. Sanders JF. Evaluation of oxazepam and placebo in emotionally disturbed aged patients. Geriatrics 1965;20:739-746.

60. Schneider LS, Pollock VE, Lyness SA. A metaanalysis of controlled trials of neuroleptic treatment in dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc 1990;38:553-563.

61. Seager CP. Chlorpromazine in treatment of elderly psychotic women. Br Med J 1955;1:882-885.

62. Simpson DM, Foster D. Improvement in organically disturbed behavior with trazodone treatment. J Clin Psychiatry 1986;47:191-193.

63. Snow SS, Wells CE. Case studies in neuropsychiatry: diagnosis and treatment of coexistent dementia and depression. J Clin Psychiatry 1981;42:11:439-441.

64. Steele C, Rovner B, Chase GA, Folstein M. Psychiatric symptoms and nursing home placement of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry 1990;147:1049-1051.

65. Stern RG, Duffelmeyer ME, Zemishlani Z, Davidson M. The use of benzodiazepines in the management of behavioral symptoms in dementia patients. Psychiatr Clin North Am 1991;14:375-384.

66. Stern Y, Mayeux R, Sano M, Hauser WA, Bush T. Predictors of disease course in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1987;37:1649-1653.

67. Sugarman AA, Williams BH, Adlerstein AM. Haloperidol in the psychiatric disorders of old age. Am J Psychiatry 1964;120:1190-1192.

68. Teri L, Reifler BV, Veith RC, Barnes R, White E, McLean P, Raskind M. Imipramine in the treatment of depressed Alzheimer's patients: impact on cognition. J Gerontol 1991;46:P373-377.

69. Van Putten T, Marder SR, Mintz J, Poland RE. Haloperidol plasma levels and clinical response: a therapeutic window relationship. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149:4:500-505.

70. Wragg RE, Jeste DV. Overview of depression and psychosis in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry 1989;146:577-587.

Back to Chapter

published 2000